Archive for the ‘Engineering’ Category

This free course will help you understand how the U.S. university application and admission process works for international students and non-native English speakers applying to undergraduate (i.e., bachelor’s degree) programs.

See the link

Applying to U.S. Universities

See Introduction video



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This is an article from my friend – Ravi Chaudhari , who graciously  agreed to write his experience for the benefits of those who want to explore and conquer the world by education !!!

Enter Ravi:

   Thinking of internationalizing your degree? Here’s what you need to do to make it happen!

Even if you’re only toying with the idea of studying abroad, start looking for certain things as mentioned in the list below immediately, because you don’t want to miss an opportunity!

Applications for programs and bursaries have deadlines: applying too late may cost you the experience.

You need to be highly motivated, because this is not a tour — it’s a study program. You might have heard, ‘studying is easy’, well I believe- it’s never that easy! And for Masters in foreign country, it’s a nightmare as it’s full of tense. Starting from application, then if admitted- accommodation, food, culture shock and Study, it’s never ‘Just like that’! You have to work hard, there is no alternative.

But I’m not here to scare you; So, I’m presenting some stages/steps you should consider if you want to study Masters in Canada or any other country.


Steps to be followed before and at time of applying

1)     Decide the country you want to apply in

2)     Advice– Apply 6-7 months prior to intake in which you want to apply

3)     For Canada, Indian Government has tie-up with Canadian government, and they give SPP- student partnership program in order to encourage the young blood of India to study. They give an opportunity to Indian students to study abroad- BUT  the problem is, Under SPP, there are 43 Colleges. Colleges provide you Certified courses, Post Graduate Diploma Program, Bachelors degree, and Advanced degree program. If you’re already done with 4 years undergrad study in India, you might not like to study Bachelors again- but if you’ve cleared Diploma studies, it’s great opportunity- Just after your Diploma studies. For undergrad students, I would recommend, aim high- plan for Masters program in University- ‘At least your goal should be higher

4)     Decide the Universities / Institutes you want to apply in

5)     Check for FAQ to find answers to your queries , if not satisfied , contact concerned person from respective department

6)     Now, apply for Transcripts in your University (8-10 Copies, depending on in how many Universities you want to apply )

7)     Go for any consultancy agency (OPTIONAL) (Suggestion: NOT REQUIRED AT ALL)

8)     Get your recommendation letters from professors, whom you know closely- prepare a format by yourself (or if the professor is very (VERY) nice, then he might prepare a letter for you!), mail it to professor, if he permits, get all Reco. Letters on letter head of your Institution. Then get it signed and sealed at Student section

        Check if any University requires specific Recommendation- as per their format- then prepare a Reco. Letter and get it filled up by professor (preferably 3 Professors )

        Some universities require only ONLINE Recos., then go for it

9)     For thesis- M.A.Sc (Master of Applied Science) study, Check for any professor from selected University, who is doing research on your area of interest, just PIN his/her name somewhere on Application if he/she is ready to take you as student (will be useful , when you’ve applied already, to get his/her recommendations directly – for selection committee)

10)For M.Eng (Master of Engineering), you need not to contact any professor, just go fill online application, and apply all your inputs (Academics, Competitive exams)

11)In some Universities they might require GRE for Masters admission, so check in admission requirement before you apply

12)Advice: Get some experience (Training/ Internship from any relevant Industry), so that you can prepare a good SOP, and a nice Resume as well…

13)Prepare a ‘Statement of Purpose’, this is HEART of any application, take your time and collect all your experience, be meticulous and prepare it very effective!

14)During all these processes ongoing, you should apply for GRE, IELTS/ TOEFL, as per admission requirement of any University, try hard to get these results as per specifications

15)No need to say, Get your Passport ready

16)Some Universities require ‘Statement of Funding (Mostly US based Universities)’- a saving A/c in National Bank (i.e. SBI) having at least 40000 to 50000 USD/CAD

17)Okay, now when you have IELTS result, 10-12 Mark sheets, Passport, Birth Certificate , Bank balance Certificate, get it all notarized.

18)Get all Documents together – (Transcripts+ Mark sheets+ Syllabus- in a single packet , sealed at student section) + 3 Recommendation letters + All Notarized copies + Latest Curriculum Vitae/ Resume

19)Apply in 8-10 Universities , which should be classified as-

  •  3 High level Universities
  •  3 Medium level Universities
  • 1/2 Lower level Universities (any colleges)

The reason, for applying in Universities from different categories is, because you don’t want to put all your apples in a single basket!! I mean, you don’t want to make your chances to Zero, if you don’t get admitted in your priority University! After all, everyone has a Back-up plan!

20)Now once you’ve all the documents ready with you, you should start with online application, every university has its own deadlines, so apply accordingly. You are applying in foreign University, one thing you should keep in mind is they are very strict about TIME. So, deadline matters a lot in all cases.

21)Have patience while online application, one mistake towards it’ll be reason of your dismissal of you admission, so fill all the details carefully

22)Apply in 2-3 universities/ day

23)After applying online, you will get mail – ‘That you’ve successfully paid fees/ applications etc..’, get a copy of it (print)

24)Once you’ve applied a PDF copy will be formed (in some unis.), get it printed for  future reference

25)Now, after all online applications has been submitted, it’s time to prepare Packets, which are to be sent to mailing address of University

        Though, in some universities , you need not to send mail /post to them, only ‘SOFT COPIES’ are required to be sent, on University portal

        You may be given an ID, password, and on a portal, you will be asked to upload your documents

26)So, I advise you to keep a soft copy of all documents, before you seal it (i.e. Transcripts, Mark sheets, IELTS result, Passport, CV, Recommendation letter, Birth Certificate etc.)

27)Now, you are ready with packet. So set in order as described below: Starting with-

        Cover letter (In which dept. you’re applying , in which program, enclosures, signature )

        Online Payment receipt

        Sealed Transcripts + Mark sheets

        12th mark sheet

        10th mark sheet

        2/3 RECO letters

        Statement of Intent

        IELTS result

        Statement of funding (if required)

        CV/ Resume


28)That’s it, prepare it as specified above, and mail it to address given, 2/3 packets/day, as you should not make mistake in any of these steps / Documents

29)After applying wait at least for a month or two.

30)Hope, you’ll get a mail from them, positively (But, in case if they don’t select you, that also will be emailed to you (Believe me, it’s going to feel bad- and the mail will be starting with “After carefully reviewing your application, we regret to inform you that our selection committee is not able to let you in for the course applied…bla bla bla….”))

31)One of my friend said, if you’re not selected ,you will be notified soon, but if you’re selected , it’ll take time to process and reply from their side (Docs will be going from- Department -> Graduate Studies -> International Section) (Personally, I don’t believe in it—just apply with all your efforts and then WAIT)

32)At last, when you have all the documents- along with your offer letter from University, go to nearest VFS Global office, and apply for VISA.


33)For student VISA, it just takes 15-20 days at max. If they take more time, then wait!! If much more time then just BUZZ them!

34)Once you have VISA (You can do take this step earlier, if you’re very sure about getting admitted), get your flight ticket.

And Bon Voyage!

If you need more information from a reliable source, following are the links:


Once you reach to desired place- at your dream University

1)     Okay, calm down now. You are at your ‘dream place’, don’t get panic by new climate and atmosphere, you’ll get used to it eventually.

2)     So, at Airport, you might find a stall from your University’s International students’ department, if not head towards nearest place to your University.

3)     Accommodation-If you’ve been in contact with some other people on social media, who had applied in same term and same university (Winter/fall/– Summer in some cases) as yours, then go search some decent place to live in- which is near to University. So that it’ll be easy in transportation. You can use always use a reliable source, a website: http://montreal.kijiji.ca/

4)     About culture shock- you might feel some- but you will get acclimatized to it soon, very soon.

5)     Documentation- Now, once you are settled up, and unpacked all your bags- go to your Department advisor’s office, inform about your arrival, ask about anything you want to know- related to Academics obviously- i.e. what documents you need to submit and where? Which and how many courses you should take? About the fees… etc..

6)     Then get yourself registered in Courses you’re interested- Advice: take some reviews, suggestions from Seniors

7)     Food– you might face some problems if you’re vegetarian! Because food is not very tasty, they call it veggie. But at home, you’re the cook- learn some good items to cook and go for it- if you eat eggs- that would be a great option! Takes less time to prepare, and give good protein and other nutrition.

8)     License- if you’ve driven in your country, and if you get International Driving Permit from RTO, in different provinces they permit to drive for certain time period. But you’re going to need local driving license, so apply for it, once you get all your documents from University (Student Identity Card etc.)

9)     Be active in different activities- Voluntary work and some events. That will help you coming out from ‘nostalgic’ feeling, and also will help making new friends

10)Apply for Co-op Program, if available in your University/ College, that’s best opportunity for a student- ‘earning while learning’, real world experience and also it will earn some academic credits for you.

11)If you need some activity(-that you’ll need for sure-), go for your hobby/ passion- it might be any Sports, Photography, Reading, Learning new languages etc..

Bonne chance pour votre nouvelle vie!

Thanks Ravi !!!

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“Competence, like truth, beauty, and contact lenses, is in the eye of the beholder”   Dr. Laurence J Peter

Automation Federation has done fantastic work on competency required in Automation.

A must for every hiring manager to prepare job profile and for every Automation Professional to evaluate his skills and compare with this one for self development.

Another great resource is from ISA  which describes various domains in Automation and explains knowledge and Skill set required.

Click to access CAPClassificationSystemWEB.pdf

From my experience I have learnt that knowledge of various disciplines like Process, Electrical , Information technology, Mechanical, Project Management is required to excel in Automation.

Finally, I would like to quote Charlie Munger, “You’ve got to hang experience on a latticework of models in your head”. Because then only we learn an apply all the theory.

Keep learning, keep applying and keep succeeding …

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“Standards are like DNA. They are the basic building blocks for all technology and economic systems.”

D.E. Purcel

Standards play a key role for an Automation Professional as a  useful tool and  that’s why I thought to write an article on it.

Those of you making use of the Modbus, Devicenet or Fieldbus/Profibus would have faced the problem of making them communicating with the DCS/PLC.

Imagine if there would not be any standard, would we have succeed ever?

From a simple nut & bolt to a complex system in the Spacecraft ,  use of standards to make plant/Equipment  Safe, Reliable , Efficient and ultimately economical.

Apart from above benefit , they provide:

  • Quality Improvement
  • Fit for Purpose Design
  • Simplicity for execution and Implementation
  • Providing a platform for sharing information and creating knowledge which can be utilized who are unaware
  • Promote Globalization and ultimately value creation

OGP ( International Association of Oil & Gas Producers) has created an excellent report on Standards used in Automation.

OGP has distilled this knowledge and here is the link to download for Free.


I am really thankful to this organization and it’s members and wish that all us of make use of this report and the standards listed to make this world a safe place to live with use of these standards.

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With refreshing thoughts , I would like to write about the job search in Canada for Instrumentation & Control Professional mainly in Oil and Gas industry. This post discusses industries (EPC, Vendor & client) and  places ( Alberta province) type of jobs,  for finding right  job in  the Canada.

The story starts in the year 2000. I had applied for Immigration to the Canada. I was searching for the skills which are in demand for the Instrumentation and Control  professional. ISA came to my rescue. I wrote an e mail to Ram ( I didn’t knew him at that time. Now he is a good  friend of mine) an ISA member who was residing in the Calgary. He gave me good idea of skill set required for I&C Professional. Later help came from   Dipak Kataria and Kalpesh Patel. Thanks to Ram, Dipak and Kalpesh for giving right advise for finding the job  the Canada.  Now, I am giving back to our community which will be helpful to aspiring immigrants to Canada.


These are the typical jobs  in the EPC ( Engineering Procurement & Commissioning) industry (Like Fluor,Jacobs, Bantrel etc..)


The job mainly involves Specify, Selection and Sizing of Instrument including Control Valve and Procurement. Some Engineering companies calls as Commodity Specialist .The Skill and Knowledge  in

(1) P &ID Development

(2) Selection of Flow, Level, Pressure, Flow  Control Valves and ON/OFF valves & Sizing of Orifice and Control Valve.

(3) Procurement (Request for Quote, Technical Bid Evaluation and Purchase Order )

(4) Preparation of Instrument Index , Control Narrative , Cause & Effect and  Datasheet

(5) Interface with Process for Data, Mechanical for mainly for Type of Material and Nozzle size etc.., Electrical for type of contact , cable Procurement etc..


There is a Design component in EPC and the Knowledge and Skill set required are

(1) Intools – now known as Smart Plant Instrumentation. This will involve Understanding various modules like Instrument Index, Calculation, Loop drawing, Installation Drawing etc..

(2) Field design which includes Calculation of Cables, Junction box , Marshalling Cabinets, Instrument Location etc..

(3) Drafting – Mainly on Autocad or Autoplant for drafting all the drawing such as P &ID, Instrument Location Plan, JB drawing, Marshalling drawing etc..


They are responsible for

(1) Generating I/O Count for DCS, SIS, PLC etc.

(2) Specify,Selection, Sizing and Procurement of DCS, SIS, PLC,Plant Historian, Remote Instrument House/Enclosure

(3) Defining System Architecture including servers, Consoles and various Interface to Business Systems like SAP

(4) Generating enough information on Control Philosophy, Graphic Guidelines, Alarm Management Philosophy, Detail Control Narrative & Cause and Effect Diagram required by DCS/SIS/PLC programmer.

(5) Testing which includes  FAT and  SAT.

(6) Defining and producing enough information for Programmer for Communication Protocols like Profibus, DeviceNet,Modubus,OPC. This involves interface with Electrical, third party PLCs.

(7) Functional Safety related activities like Preparation of Safety Requirement Specification, Defining SILs and Verification. This may be done by separate Safety Specialist if the project is big.

(8) Reviewing FDS (Functional Design Specification) generated by Automation (DCS/SIS ) vendor.

(9) There may be a separate Specialist/Engineer for third party packages like Vibration Monitoring, Anti Surge Control, Vendor packages for process like Air  Compressors etc.,

(10) Process Fire & Gas which includes System selection (SIS), Detectors like Gas, H2S & Fire. There may be a separate Fire & Gas Specialist if the project is big.


Resposible for:

(1)Specifying, selecting and procuring various Analyzers like Gas Chromatographs, CEMS (Continous Emission Monitoring System) including Analyzers shelters

(2)Review of Sample Conditioning system.

(3)Specify,Selection and Procuring of LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System)


He is responsible:

(1) Managing all of the above Engineers/Specialist/Designer

(2) Creating Manpower requirement, schedule and progress report on Deliverables

(3) Review of the Deliverables like P &ID, Datasheets, Guidelines, Technical Bid Evaluation

(4) Coordinating within his team and with other disciples like Electrical, Process,Mechanical, HSE and Project Management.

JOBS in Client

These are the typical jobs  in the Client ( Manufacturing Facilities  like Suncor, Imperial Oil, Encana, Conoco Phillips ) industry

I would like to segregate these on two accounts. One for Project and second for Manufacturing facility (Plant).

For Projects mainly there is a requirement of  Lead Engineer and Specialist who may over sees , review and Interface with EPCs.  There may be or may not be  a separate Instrumentation Engineer or Control Engineer.  The skill set and Knowledge required are

(1) Preparation and Review of Guidelines and Specifications such as Control Philosophy

(2) Guide EPC & Vendor and provide recommendation where ever there is a Technical clarification.

(3)Define scope, man power requirement and schedule requirement from I &C perspective

(4)Provide input to HAZOP and SIL Assignment

(5)Ensure Deliverables like P&ID, Datasheets, Configuration are in Compliance with Standards and Guidelines .

(6) Coordinate with key stake holders within organization such as Operations and Maintenance, Project and outside organization such as EPC and Vendor.

For Manufacturing facilities , mainly there is requirement for Commissioning  Specialist when the plant is being started. In Running plant there is a requirement for Instrument Supervisor who manages Instrument Technicians – who troubleshoots field Instrument related problems. There is also Control/Automation Specialist who does the System job which includes DSC, SIS, PLC programming and modify the Control schemes for on going Sustainable projects. There is a Lead Automation Specialist/Engineer also who manages these Specialist and participates in HAZOP/SIL and other reviews. The Lead also look after Sustainable project review and it’s implementation at site.

Having discussed the industries, another important thing to consider is the place. This post mainly focus on Alberta province. There are mainly three cities to focus – Calgary for EPC, Edmonton for EPC and clients and Fort Mcmurray for clients companies.

Hope this post will add some value for the job seekers looking for a great career in the Canada.

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The Internet has changed the way we upgrade our knowledge. It has provided various avenues that  never existed earlier like E- mail discussion list of ISA (International Society of Automation, www.isa.org), LinkedIn groups, RSS  (Really Simple Syndication) Reader such as Google Reader, You Tube and Knowledge Networks. In this post, I will discuss  how I am using these tools to increase my knowledge and add value to the client.


Dr Covey tells a story in his book ” The Seven habits of highly effective people” about a young man who was given a job to cut trees. On the first day he cut seven trees and subsequent day with same effort he could cut fewer trees. When, he asked owner why he was not productive, the owner asked him if he sharpen the saw. We tends to be driven in urgent and routine work and pay less attention to such proactive activity as “Sharpen the saw” which is the seventh habit of his book. The tools  discussed here will help us to make us proactive and productive.


ISA has an E-mail list and the popular ones are “Instruments”, “Controls” and “Safety”.  You can subscribe to these E- mail lists. The advantage is that you can ask a question and get reply from experts from whole world. Even, if you just read the discussion, it will be helpful. I would like to acknowledge  contribution  from active contributor like Walter Driedger and so many others to these forums. You can subscribe them at:


Additionally, Foundation Fieldbus has a forum at: http://forums.fieldbus.org/  .  There are some great presentation on FF technology.

http://www.control.com/ is also online community for Automation professionals for sharing knowledge and updating.


Google Reader is the RSS reader,  I use for keeping myself updated to latest and greatest in our field. I was introduced to RSS by  Jim Cahill of “Emerson Process Experts” blog.  You can subscribe to the blogs, word specific search and then read in Google Reader. This is like customized newspaper. Hence, you do not go for searching content but, it is delivered to you by RSS.

You can import my subscription by importing this file. Go to Settings>Import/Export and then, Upload


Rename this file as .xml  from .doc as I cannot attach file with extension xml.  Also, unsubscribe to the subscription you do not want to read by going to Settings>Subscription and then, select the one you want to unsubscribe and click “Unsubscribe”.


One of my friends Ravi Tata sent me an invitation to the  LinkedIn and I joined that. However, after reading Guy Kawasaki’s blog about LinkedIn, I was into it.  Linkedin is a professional network site and is not only helpful for networking and job searching but, also for Professional Development.

Here is the link to Guy Kawasaki about ” How to use LinkedIn?”


You can join Linkedin by filling your name and  Email at : http://www.linkedin.com/home

Then, create your profile highlighting your skill and experience. Later, join the groups related to Automation like  ISA, Intools, Process Control , Automation Engineer, Process Safety Management etc…You can start discussion by creating asking questions and replying if you know the answer. There are vendor specific groups also like Delta V also.

Include all the companies you worked for and the Educational institutions you studied in your profile. This will help you to network with your colleagues and co-workers.  LinkedIn is one of the most powerful tools in the world of social media.


You Tube has revolutionized the way  we see video. Let’s say if you want to know the principle of Magnetic flow meter, just type in the search and you will see a video explains that. Whether, you are interested in product knowledge or theory behind any principle , just search You Tube. Even, lectures of prestigious IIT ( Indian Institute of Technology ) are found at You Tube.


During my tenure at Cegelec & Honeywell, I was introduced to the concept of Knowledge network. Basically, a company community to share the Knowledge. Then, I joined Fluor. It has one of the best Knowledge Network and  is ” Global Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises”.


Use this network to learn and share knowledge. It provides relevant , useful and specific  knowledge pertaining to your company.  Read all the Specifications, Guidelines your company provides. Be the Knowledge Champion in your area of expertise.


Having these tools in arsenal, it really useful. However, not all the information on the Internet is correct. One should know the source and use judgment before using that. The best way it can work for you is to ask for expert opinion on new product or technology you are introducing in your company or clarify interpretation on clauses of a standard or maintenance strategy etc. . Do not ask an information which you can get directly from  a vendor or by googling.

Hope, you enjoy reading this post and start using these tools if not used earlier. This post is an expression of my gratitude  to Inst. & Control Community. Always remember to give back to the world in whatever way and capacity you can. Nothing is insignificant.

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So many professionals asked me about Certifications in Instrumentation and Control field. This post is an answer to their questions.  Having obtained P. Eng., CFSE &  CAP, I would like to shed some light on why professional certification is important, Which are the choices  and some of the strategies which have worked for me to prepare for these certificates.


Why do we have to obtain these certificates though we have enough experience and skill?

The reply is about creating personal brand. Distinguishing yourself from the  crowd. Just like Sony, Apple and Lexus are brands, we can create our own brand by obtaining these certifications. Brand gives you premium.  Secondly, it provides credibility, which is by third-party like ISA ,CFSE , APEGGA or ASET. Hiring managers have now so many choices with professionals for a particular job. You can create better  impression about yourself to these hiring managers not only for jobs, but also for pay rise.

Definitely,  right experience and skills are required for job and no certificate can replace that.  However, these certificates can complement to that. This shows commitment towards continuous improvement and strive for excellence. Polls have shown that higher education definitely gives you higher salary, similarly these certificates will provide you an edge and leverage to ask for higher pay/salary. Here is the details if you want to know more.



Having answered why do we need these certifications, I delve into the details of “how”.

Professional Engineering license is the first that comes to mind. If you are in Canada, Engineering is a regulated professional and one must have this license or must work under the person who has such license.

Even, so many jobs ask for P Eng. as a mandatory requirement.

The details on how to get P Eng ( for Alberta, Canada) can be obtained at:


APEGGA also conduct seminars regularly to provide information on registering as P Eng.

Even though,  if you do not have the experience for applying (e.g. for foreign graduates , minimum 10 years of experience in Engineering is required, out of which one year must be in Canada), one can start preparing resume and talking to reference in advance. This will reduce the effort and simplify the process of applying for P. Eng.

The registration details for Technologist are at :



Once you get  P. Eng. or P.Tech. (Eng), the next certification can be CAP (Certified Automation Professional), CCST( Certified Control System Technician) and/or CFSE (Certified Functional Safety Expert)/CFSP.
CAP is the certificate provided by ISA (International Society of Automation).  According to ISA website, CAPs are  responsible for the direction, definition, design, development/application, deployment, documentation, and support of systems, software, and equipment used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting.

CAP details are at:

To write CAP exam, one must study all seven domains: Feasibility study, Definition, System design , Development, Deployment and Operation & Maintenance. In addition to distribution of questions in these seven domains, there are seven Technical categories, which are: Basic Continous Control, Basic Discrete, Sequencing and Manufacturing Control,  Advance Control, (Reliability , Safety and Electrical), Integration and Software, Deployment and Maintenance and Work structure.

If you would like to know some more details on PE and CAP, this article  from Control magazine will help you.


You can find  CCST details at:


CFSE/CFSP/TÜV Functional Safety Engineer

If you are doing work related to Safety Instrumented System (SIS) then CFSE or CFSP is the way to go. According to  CFSE website:

This certificate ensure that personnel performing SIS life-cycle activities are competent as required by the IEC 61508, 61511 and 62061 standards.

The reason that  one should become CFSE/CFSP is that standards require a proof of qualification to insure safety knowledge & skill are up-to-date, and some companies now require CFSE holders to oversee safety projects & CFSP holders to execute them.

For CFSE/CFSP details:

Apart for CFSE/CFSP,  TÜVRheinland offers TÜV Functional Safety Engineer certificate. The details can be obtained at:



Other than, these certificates, Project Management Professional (PMP) by PMI (Project Management Institute) can be pursued if the work demands project management like many Automation companies like Honeywell, Emerson  & Invensys asks PMP for the Project Manager job handling project related to Automation.

Here is the link:



Now, I will discuss some of the strategies which have worked for me to obtain these certificates.

(1) Consult the person who has already done such certificate. Ask him to be your mentor if possible.

(2) Buy/obtain the training material as suggested by these organizations.

(3) Take training class if you can afford or your company pays for that. I haven’t taken any training class for obtaining CFSE, CAP certificate.

(4) Create group and discuss. I personally feel that this really helps as one can share the learning and discuss doubts.

(5) Make a schedule and read every day. i.e, 25 pages on normal day and 150 pages on weekend. Discipline is the key to success.

(6) Practice and Practice…Keep practicing online questions or written questions. Treat as if you are giving real exam.

Hope this post will inspire at least one person to obtain any of these certificates. If you are looking for job, this is the right time to prepare for these certificates.

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